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Their deaths followed the Jan. 31 slaying of Assistant District Attorney Mark Hasse. (March 31, 2013)
2014-11-12 17:48:20

 
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2014-11-12 17:44:42

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2014-11-12 17:42:33

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Posted: March 8, 2004T-00:02.73Engine StartThe Russian-built RD-180 engine rumbles to life and builds to 74 percent thrust. A health check of eight engine parameters is performed by the rocket's onboard computer a half-second before liftoff.T+00:00LaunchThe Atlas 3A rocket lifts off from pad 36B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, marking the rocket family's 5th flightT+00:02Roll and Pitch ProgramsDuring the vertical ascent Atlas completes a 7-second roll maneuver to align itself with proper flight azimuth. Following the roll, the rocket begins a pitch-over maneuver with Centaur inertial guidance system in control of pitch and yaw programs.T+00:06Throttle UpThe RD-180 engine is throttled up from its liftoff thrust of 74 percent to 92 percent after the rocket clears the launch pad 36B tower.T+00:33Throttle DownThe RD-180 engine is throttled down to a thrust level of about 60 percent to ease the rocket through the dense lower atmosphere.T+01:05Through Max-QThe rocket passes through maximum dynamic pressure and goes transonic. The RD-180 now throttles back up to its cruise setting of just over 80 percent thrust, ramping up to 5.5 g's.T+02:52Throttle DownTo prepare for the upcoming engine shutdown, the RD-180 is once again throttled down, this time to 47 percent.T+03:01.4Booster Engine CutoffThe RD-180 engine is commanded to cut off once minimum residual propellant is sensed inside the Atlas booster stage.T+03:07.4Atlas/Centaur SeparationSix seconds after engine shutdown, the Atlas booster stage separates from the Centaur upper stage. Over the next 11 seconds, the Centaur liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen systems are readied for engine ignition and the nozzle extension is deployed.T+03:18.4Centaur Engine StartMES 1, the longer of the two Centaur firings, begins to inject the upper stage and MBSAT communications satellite into a low altitude parking orbit around Earth.T+03:26.4Jettison Payload FairingThe 14-foot diameter aluminum payload fairing that protected the MBSAT satellite during launch is separated once heating levels drop to predetermined limits.T+12:39.4Centaur Engine CutoffMECO 1 occurs when the single Centaur engine is shut down, with the rocket arriving in a planned parking orbit. The vehicle begins a coast period over the mid-Atlantic before arriving at the required location in space for the second burn.T+22:57.7Centaur Engine Re-startMES 2 occurs over the Atlantic Ocean between the African Ivory Coast and Ascension Island before the rocket passes just north of the equator. The burn accelerates the vehicle and satellite into the required geosynchronous transfer orbit.T+26:03.3Centaur Engine CutoffAt the point of MECO 2, the Centaur with MBSAT should be in the required transfer orbit, completing the powered phase of the launch. Moments later, the stage begins aligning to the satellite separation attitude.T+28:39.3Spacecraft SeparationThe MBSAT spacecraft to provide mobile communications for Japan and South Korea is released into orbit from the Centaur upper stage to complete the AC-202 launch.Image and data source: Lockheed MartinSoviet SpaceFor the first time ever available in the West. Rocket & Space Corporation Energia: a complete pictorial history of the Soviet/Russian Space Program from 1946 to the present day all in full color. Available from our store.Choose your store: - - - Viking patchThis embroidered mission patch celebrates NASA's Viking Project which reached the Red Planet in 1976.Choose your store: - - - Apollo 7 DVDFor 11 days the crew of Apollo 7 fought colds while they put the Apollo spacecraft through a workout, establishing confidence in the machine what would lead directly to the bold decision to send Apollo 8 to the moon just 2 months later. Choose your store: - - - Gemini 12Gemini 12: The NASA Mission Reports covers the voyage of James Lovell and Buzz Aldrin that capped the Gemini program's efforts to prove the technologies and techniques that would be needed for the Apollo Moon landings. Includes CD-ROM.Choose your store: - - - Mars rover collectible patchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This commemorative patch celebrates NASA's Curiosity rover mission of the Mars Science Laboratory in search of clues whether the Red Planet was once hospitable to life.John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store.Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors' patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: - - - Inside Apollo mission controlAn insider's view of how Apollo flight controllers operated and just what they faced when events were crucial. Choose your store: The ultimate Apollo 11 DVD This exceptional chronicle of the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission features new digital transfers of film and television coverage unmatched by any other.Choose your store: - - - Next ISS crewOwn a little piece of history with this official patch for the International Space Station's Expedition 11 crew. We'll ship yours today!Choose your store: | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) System U.S. AIR FORCE FACT SHEET Credit: U.S. Air ForceMission/VisionThe Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) System is a joint service satellite communications system that will provide survivable, global, secure, protected, and jam-resistant communications for high-priority military ground, sea and air assets. Advanced EHF will allow the National Security Council and Unified Combatant Commanders to control their tactical and strategic forces at all levels of conflict through general nuclear war and supports the attainment of information superiority. BackgroundThe AEHF System is the follow-on to the Milstar system, augmenting and improving on the capabilities of Milstar, and expanding the MILSATCOM architecture. AEHF will provide connectivity across the spectrum of mission areas, including land, air and naval warfare; special operations; strategic nuclear operations; strategic defense; theater missile defense; and space operations and intelligence.FeaturesPart of the MCSW's Protected SATCOM Group, the system consists of four satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) that provides 10 times the throughput of the 1990s-era Milstar satellites with a substantial increase in coverage for users. First launch in late 2010, AEHF will provide continuous 24-hour coverage between 65 degrees north and 65 degrees south latitude. The AEHF system is composed of three segments: space (the satellites), ground (mission control and associated communications links) and terminals (the users). The segments will provide communications in a specified set of data rates from 75 bps to approximately 8 Mbps. The space segment consists of a cross-linked constellation of three satellites. The mission control segment controls satellites on orbit, monitors satellite health and provides communications system planning and monitoring. This segment is highly survivable, with both fixed and mobile control stations. System uplinks and crosslinks will operate in the extremely high frequency (EHF) range and downlinks in the super high frequency (SHF) range. The terminal segment includes fixed and ground mobile terminals, ship and submarine terminals, and airborne terminals used by all of the Services and international partners (Canada, Netherlands and UK). MCSW is responsible for acquisition of the space and ground segments as well as the Air Force terminal segments. The Army and Navy will acquire their own terminals.General CharacteristicsPrimary Function: Near-worldwide, secure, survivable satellite communicationsPrimary Contractor: Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Payload: Onboard signal processing, crossbanded EHF/SHF communicationsAntennas: 2 SHF Downlink Phased Arrays, 2 Crosslinks, 2 Uplink/Downlink Nulling Antennas, 1 Uplink EHF Phased Array, 6 Uplink/Downlink Gimbaled Dish Antenna, 1 Each Uplink/downlink earth coverage horns Capability: Data rates from 75 bps to approximately 8 MbpsSTS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.AEHF 2 encapsulated for launchSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 30, 2012 The U.S. Air Force's second Advanced Extremely High Frequency satellite, dubbed AEHF 2, is pictured in this gallery during the mid-April process to encapsulate the craft into the Swiss-made nose cone of the United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket at the Astrotech spacecraft preparation facility in Titusville.The bullet-shaped shroud protects the satellite during ascent through Earth's atmosphere and then gets jettisoned from the rocket at T+plus 3 minutes and 34 seconds.See our for the latest news on the launch.Photo credit: Jim Dowdall/Lockheed Martin Space SystemsAEHF 2 hoisted atop its Atlas launcherSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 25, 2012 The U.S. Air Force's second Advanced Extremely High Frequency satellite, dubbed AEHF 2, is hoisted into the open doorway at the Vertical Integration Facility at Cape Canaveral's Complex 41 for attachment atop the United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket on April 23.The ultra-secure communications spacecraft is tucked inside the bullet-shaped nose cone that protects the satellite during ascent through Earth's atmosphere and then gets jettisoned from the rocket at T+plus 3 minutes and 34 seconds.See our for the latest news on the launch.Photo credit: United Launch AllianceAir Force X-37B spaceplane arrives in Florida for launch SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: February 25, 2010 A secretive military spacecraft resembling a small space shuttle orbiter flew to Florida in the belly of a cargo plane this week to undergo final processing for launch on April 19. The X-37B/OTV spacecraft undergoes final testing at Boeing. Credit: Air ForceThe Air Force confirmed the critical preflight milestone in a response to written questions on Thursday.The 29-foot-long, 15-foot-wide Orbital Test Vehicle arrived in Cape Canaveral, Fla., on Monday, according to the Air Force. The OTV spaceplane was built at a Boeing Phantom Works facility in Southern California.Managed by the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, the OTV program is shrouded in secrecy, but military officials occasionally release information on the the spaceplane's progress."It is now undergoing spacecraft processing including checkout, fueling, and encapsulating in the 5-meter fairing of the Atlas 5 [rocket]," an Air Force spokesperson said.The 11,000-pound vehicle will launch inside the nose cone of the Atlas 5 rocket. Liftoff is currently set for 10 p.m. EDT on April 19.The reusable spacecraft is more famously known as the X-37B. The design is based on the orbital and re-entry demonstrator initially developed by NASA, then handed over to the Pentagon.The NASA version of the X-37 featured an equipment bay 7 feet long and 4 feet in diameter for experiments and deployable payloads.The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency completed a series of approach and landing tests in 2007 using the White Knight airplane from Scaled Composites as a mothership.It is easy to track the X-37's tumultuous history. NASA awarded the first X-37 contract to Boeing in July 1999, and the agency flew a series of visible atmopsheric tests on a scale model of the spaceplane in 2001. The X-37 began its transformation from a human spaceflight testbed to a military-run project when NASA shifted responsibility to DARPA in September 2004, a consequence of the space agency's new focus on lunar exploration. Artist's concept of the X-37 under NASA management. Credit: Boeing Phantom WorksBut specific payloads for the Air Force's OTV program aren't so clear. Officials have denied interview requests on the project, and the military only releases information through written responses.The X-37B's mission is to "demonstrate a reliable, reusable, unmanned space test platform for the United States Air Force," the military fact sheet says. "Objectives of the OTV program include space experimentation, risk reduction and concept of operations development for reusable space vehicle technologies."At the end of its mission, the X-37B will fire its engine and drop from orbit, autonomously navigating through a fiery re-entry on the way to its 15,000-foot-long primary runway at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Edwards Air Force Base is the backup landing site.The duration of the spaceplane's first mission isn't being announced."The X-37B has the requirement to be on-orbit up to 270 days," the Air Force spokesperson said. "Actual length for the first mission will depend on the meeting the mission objectives, which consists of checkout and performance characteristics of the spacecraft systems."STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Air Force's mini space shuttle returns after 468-day flight SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: June 16, 2012 Capping a 15-month clandestine military mission circling the planet, the Pentagon's miniature spaceplane, one quarter the size of NASA's now-retired space shuttle, returned to Earth just after dawn Saturday for a pinpoint touchdown at Vandenberg Air Force Base. An artist's concept of the X-37B in space. Credit: Air ForceThe Orbital Test Vehicle received the ground-issued command to come home, initiating a fully autonomous sequence of firing its propulsion system to brake from orbit, plunging through the atmosphere for a super-hot reentry over the Pacific Ocean, executing a series of turns to dissipate speed towards Vandenberg, then dropping its gear with dinner plate-sized wheels for a tire-smoking touchdown at 5:48 a.m. local (8:48 a.m. EDT; 1248 GMT) while flying on a sophisticated autopilot fed with GPS navigation.The powerless glider's approach and landing used Vandenberg's three-mile-long concrete runway once envisioned to support manned space shuttles returning from polar-orbiting military flights. The base is located on California's Central Coast about 150 miles northwest of Los Angeles."Similar to OTV-1, the vehicle will go through post-landing assessments andrefurbishment and lessons learned from that will be incorporated into thenext mission," said Maj. Tracy Bunko, an Air Force spokeswoman.Watch a video and see a collection of .The official duration for OTV-2 was 468 days, 13 hours and 2 minutes on a voyage that circled the globe more than 7,000 times. The single-mission numbers surpassed the flight time amassed and orbits accumulated by any of the individual space shuttles in their reusable lives. Discovery had the fleet-leading credentials at 365 days and 5,800 orbits on 39 trips to space.The marathon OTV-2 flight also lasted twice as long as the program's maiden mission in 2010.Vandenberg officials said its personnel had conducted extensive, periodic training to stay ready to receive the spaceplane at a moment's notice. Range Safety personnel had the duty to destroy vehicle if it had deviated from prescribed boundaries, but all went according to plan Saturday."Team Vandenberg has put in over a year's worth of hard work inpreparation for this landing and today we were able to see the fruits ofour labor," said Col. Nina Armagno, 30th Space Wing commander. "I am soproud of our team for coming together to execute this landing operation safelyand successfully."Launched atop an Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral , shrouded inside the booster's nose cone for the flight through the atmosphere, the winged craft was inserted into low-Earth-orbit where it operated in secret to carry out a research mission with a classified payload.Its pickup truck-size cargo bay, seven feet long and four feet wide, could have been filled with equipment being exposed to the harsh environment of space for proof testing or could have contained experimental instruments intended for use by future military and reconnaissance satellites. The craft's unique capability to drop from orbit and land on a runway allows technicians to get their hands on the hardware after it spent more than a year in space."We're in a very serious and important business in providing national security space capabilities for our nation. As you well know, some of those technologies are state of the art, highly complex, very technical and our ability to examine those technologies before they're made operational is a long sought after capability," Richard McKinney, deputy under secretary of the Air Force for space programs, explained following the OTV-1 landing."Now we can test those capabilities well in advance of putting them in operational. So rather than having it go up for the first time and do an operational mission, we could actually test those capabilities."Wild speculation about the spaceplanes and their missions has ranged from secret flyby surveillance of China's orbital station to the weaponization of space."I appreciate the innovation and creativity of some people, but this is a test bed," McKinney said after OTV-1. "We're going to use this to put experiments on orbit. We're going to check them out. We're going to test them and we're going to bring them back. That's what this is."Built by Boeing's Phantom Works division, the spaceplane is 29 feet long with a wing span of 15 feet, made of light-weight composite structures instead of aluminum and shielded with improved leading-edge ceramic insulation panels on its wings and tougher silica tiles affixed to its belly that are designed to be more durable than first-generation tiles used on the space shuttle. It can weigh up to 11,000 pounds fueled for launch. The in-space design life is 270 days, but good performance on this mission enabled ground controllers to keep it aloft significantly longer.Unlike the space shuttles that used cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen reactants to generate electricity through onboard fuel cells, limiting the mission lengths by the amount of consumables that could be carried, the OTV is powered by a deployable solar array. The longest shuttle flight was 18 days.Hobbyist satellite trackers closely monitored the vehicle since its launch last spring, watching it in an initial 206-mile (331 km) orbit inclined 42.8 degrees to the equator. Last summer, the orbit was raised slightly to 209 miles (337 km)."It maintained this altitude against the effects of drag through frequent small orbit maneuvers," said Ted Molczan, a respected satellite observer.In May, however, the craft began lowering its altitude, briefly slipping out of the trackers' sight until being discovered in the new orbit of 182 miles (293 km) tiled 41.9 degrees relative to the equator.The new orbit caused its ground track to repeat, almost precisely, every three days; the previous altitude repeated every two days. Molczan said satellites with ground tracks repeating at intervals of two, three or four days have long been favored for U.S. imagery intelligence satellites, potentially offering a clue to the craft's payload."We want to be able to put an object up into space, materials and technology and so forth, test them out, bring them back and examine them," McKinney said after the OTV-1 mission. "That's what it is, pure and simple."This was the second of the Orbital Test Vehicles to fly in the X-37B program, following the inaugural voyage that spent 224 days in space from April to December 2010, frequently maneuvering in what was considered to be a shakedown cruise to demonstrate the spaceplane's capabilities.On the occasion of OTV-2 surpassing the first vehicle's mission duration, Lt. Col. Tom McIntyre, the program manager, said the second spaceplane was expanding the platform's envelope."This successful flight is important in the progression of the X-37B program, moving us forward in our effort to prove the utility and cost-effectiveness of an unmanned, long-duration, reusable spacecraft."The original vehicle has been refurbished for shipment back to Cape Canaveral and a return to space. Another United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket will haul that craft to orbit in a liftoff now targeted for October."The exact number of X-37 missions has yet to be determined, but we anticipate that multiple missions will be required to meet the program objectives and validate the technologies of interest," Bunko said this month.The cost of the OTV program is classified."It's a test bed, it's a platform, it's an experiment process that we just didn't have before," McKinney said previously. "I think it opens up a whole new realm of possibilities in terms of being able to prove out new technologies and new materials."STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Air Force's miniature space shuttle reaches launch pad SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 21, 2010 Its cost and mission are classified, but a first-of-a-kind reusable miniature military space shuttle is on the launch pad ready to soar into orbit on an Atlas 5 rocket Thursday evening. The Atlas 5 rolled to the launch pad at Complex 41 Wednesday morning. Credit: Pat Corkery/United Launch AllianceUnder the cover of the Atlas 5's payload shroud, the X-37B is scheduled for launch at 7:52 p.m. EDT (2352 GMT) from Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch window extends for 9 minutes.The 196-foot-tall booster rolled to the launch pad Wednesday morning."Fundamentally, this is an updated version of the space shuttle," said Gary Payton, the U.S. Air Force's top civilian leader for military space programs. "The Air Force has a suite of military missions in space. This new vehicle could potentially help us do those missions better."Although officials are openly discussing the X-37B platform itself, the Air Force is mum on exactly what payloads the unmanned ship carries inside its cargo hold, which is about the size of a pickup truck bed.During several weeks or months in orbit, the X-37B will be a testbed for secret new technologies.Future flights of the reusable spaceship could approach U.S. or foreign satellites, recover old spacecraft, or test out surveillance and repair techniques. The speculation leads some to voice concerns over the militarization of space.During a teleconference with reporters Tuesday, Payton said none of those activities are part of the X-37B's first flight. The craft launching Thursday does not carry a robot arm like the shuttle, and there are no rendezvous objectives planned for the mission, according to Payton.New heat shield technologies, advanced guidance and navigation, a solar power generation system, and new flight control systems are at the top of the list of public goals for the test flight."The primary objectives of the X-37 are to [prove] a new batch of vehicle technologies for America's future, plus readying and demonstratring the concept of operations for reusable experimental payloads," Payton said.The X-37B will return to Earth only after it completes its top secret experiments in orbit.A mini-space shuttleWith wings and a payload bay, the spaceplane has been labeled as a miniature military space shuttle. But it is not equipped to carry people and its capabilities are significantly more limited than the real thing. The X-37B spaceplane undergoes pre-launch processing near its Florida launch site. Credit: U.S. Air ForceIt can only carry several hundred kilograms of useful payload mass to orbit, Payton said.The X-37B, also named the Orbital Test Vehicle, is about one-quarter the size of a space shuttle orbiter.The 11,000-pound spacecraft measures more than 29 feet long and 9.5 feet tall. Its wings span nearly 15 feet, according to the Air Force.Instead of running on fuel cells like the shuttle, the OTV will unfurl a small solar array to produce electricity in orbit. And the X-37B uses electromechanical actuators instead of hydraulics to move its flight control surfaces.The solar array gives the vehicle a renewable energy source, permitting the X-37B to loiter in orbit for much longer than the space shuttle, which is limited to missions lasting a few weeks.Other technologies the OTV flight will test include advanced guidance, navigation and control, thermal protection systems, avionics, high temperature structures and seals, and conformal reusable insulations, according to an Air Force fact sheet.Built by the Boeing Phantom Works division, the X-37B's on-board rocket propulsion system is nearly the size of the shuttle's primary orbit-changing engine, giving the spaceplane powerful capabilities to maneuver once in orbit.The mission will be controlled by the Air Force's 3rd Space Experimentation Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base, Colo.The Air Force says the craft's activities in space are classified, including its post-launch orbital parameters. The X-37B is designed to operate at altitudes between 110 and 500 nautical miles, or 126 to 575 miles, according to an Air Force spokesperson.Thursday's Atlas launch will enter a news blackout after the rocket's Centaur upper stage completes its first burn about 17 minutes after liftoff. Any subsequent Centaur firings and deployment of the X-37B will not be announced."You can't hide a space launch," Payton said. "The main thing we want to emphasize is the vehicle itself, not so much what's going on during the on-orbit experimental phase. The vehicle itself is the piece of news here." This artist's concept was produced when the X-37 was managed by NASA. Credit: BoeingThe length of the mission has not been determined, according to Payton. The craft can stay in orbit for up to 270 days.At the end of the flight, the craft's main engine will fire to drop the ship from orbit. The spaceplane will re-enter the atmosphere on a computer-controlled autopilot and make a high-speed landing at nearly 300 mph on a 15,000-foot-long runway at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif."Our re-entry activity is slightly different than the shuttle because the real-time human control won't be there every single instance of de-orbit preps and de-orbit burn and entry," Payton said. "It will be relying on its own autopilot, its own gyroscopes, its own GPS receivers, eventually its own altimeter. It will be on its own all the way through entry and landing. And that's dramatically different than the way shuttle does it."Transforming military space operationsThe Air Force is building another X-37B vehicle for launch next year. Its final launch date will depend on the outcome of the first flight.After landing, engineers will prepare the vehicles for more missions."The most important demonstration is on the ground," Payton said. "Once we get the bird back, we'll see what it really takes to turn this bird around and get it ready to go fly again, to learn how to do payload changeout on the ground, to learn how much it really costs to do this turnaround on the ground with these new technologies on the X-37 itself."The Air Force hopes turnaround times and operations expenses prove faster and less costly than traditional space platforms."There is much to learn in the first few flights on the technologies used on this vehicle, how quickly it can be readied for a re-flight, and on the operational utility," said David Hamilton, director of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office. "We have started discussions with Air Force Space Command (officials) to plan for the possibility for transition to an operational capability, but the system first must prove its utility and cost effectiveness during the test program."The program's future hinges on the outcome of test flights in 2010 and 2011."That all depends on the success of these first two birds," Payton said. "Can we keep the [operations and maintenance] costs low? Can we turn them around between flights easily?" The X-37B spacecraft is encapsulated inside the Atlas 5 rocket's payload fairing. Credit: U.S. Air ForceThe X-37B could bridge the divide between expensive and risky space systems and high-performance aircraft like the SR-71 spy plane."The OTV has the potential to revolutionize how the Air Force operates in space by making space operations more aircraft like and adding in the capability for returnable plug-and-play experiments," Hamilton said in an Air Force news article on the mission."If we were talking a surge of small satellites, I would like to see this X-37 handled much more like an airplane, maybe an SR-71," Payton said. "I would think handling this bird more like an SR-71 and less like a routine space launch vehicle would be a good objective. That's measured in several days, or maybe 10 or 15 days (between flights)."Any funding for further X-37B development is classified.The Pentagon's Operationally Responsive Space program, which is tasked with cutting space development times and costs, could be a good fit for a potential fleet of spaceplanes, Payton said in a March interview."We could have an X-37 sitting at Vandenberg or at the Cape, and on comparitively short notice, depending on warfighter requirements, we could put a specific payload into the payload bay, launch it up on an Atlas or Delta, and then have it stay in orbit, do the job for the combatant commander, and come back home," Payton said. "And then the next flight, we could have a different payload inside, maybe even for a different combatant commander."Even if the X-37B demonstrates its readiness for operational missions on short notice, the availability of launch vehicles will likely impede quick re-flights.The spaceplane can only launch on Atlas and Delta rockets, and their manifests are already full of military and NASA flights.Long road to launchThis isn't the first time the Air Force has dabbled in reusable space technologies. But the flight is occurring as NASA retires its own reusable spaceship and turns its focus to commercial providers and expendable one-flight systems.The craft is the manifestation of the Air Force's long-held, on-and-off again dream to operate its own space plane.The first time the military flirted with the idea of a reusable spaceship was the Dyna-Soar project of the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Dyna-Soar, also named the X-20, was envisioned as a piloted spacecraft for anti-satellite, reconnaissance and other space weapons applications.After Dyna-Soar's cancellation in 1963, the Air Force turned its attention to an ill-fated manned space station called the Manned Orbiting Laboratory. It was cancelled in 1969.The military contributed to the earliest conceptual designs of the space shuttle beginning in 1971. The Air Force selected Vandenberg to host shuttle launches on polar orbit missions with classified national security payloads.But the Pentagon scrubbed plans to launch the shuttle from Vandenberg after the Challenger accident. The military's last dedicated shuttle mission launched from Florida in 1992.The Air Force took over the X-37B program in 2006 from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military's research and development department. The X-37's origins can be traced to NASA. An atmospheric flight version of the X-37 was developed for landing tests. Credit: Boeing"We were focused on keeping as much commonality to the prior work that NASA and DARPA had done and just assembling this vehicle and sending it through the vigorous environments so we had confidence that it would work," Payton said.NASA selected Boeing to develop the X-37 in 1999 as a testbed for reusable launch vehicle technologies. The X-37 was later described as a demonstrator for NASA's Space Launch Initiative and Orbital Space Plane projects seeking less expensive and more reliable access to low Earth orbit.After funding dried up, NASA transferred the program to DARPA in 2004."The primary reason for selecting X-37 was the need to have a demonstrator for thermal protection systems and re-entry systems," said Dan Dumbacher, NASA's former X-37 project manager. "We can do arcjet testing and other things on the ground, but you never get the right environment until you actually fly stuff back from orbit. The reason NASA stayed [with the X-37] as long as they did was because of the thermal protection system technology demonstration aspect."NASA still works with the Air Force on the spacecraft's advanced silica thermal protection tiles and autonomous guidance system, according to Dumbacher."This is pretty exciting time for me, personally," Payton said. "After a tumultuous history of sponsorship, it's great to see the X-37 finally get to the launch pad and get into space."The project's management is now concentrated in the highest levels of the Air Force under the Rapid Capabilities Office, which oversees new technological developments on the fast track for introduction into operational roles.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Air Force's second robotic space shuttle circling Earth SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: March 5, 2011 Shot into orbit Saturday by a gleaming white and gold Atlas 5 rocket, the U.S. Air Force's second top secret X-37B space plane will push the boundaries of the craft's design and could stay in orbit longer than its predecessor, according to military officials. The Atlas 5 rocket blasted off at 5:46 p.m. EST (2246 GMT). Credit: Pat Corkery/United Launch AllianceThe military isn't divulging what the space plane carries, but it could be shepherding high-tech Air Force experiments, spy sensors and other research payloads."This program provides a test capability that was difficult to achieve through other means, the ability to examine how highly complex technologies will perform in space before they are made operational," said Richard McKinney, deputy under secretary of the Air Force for space programs. "But right now our focus is on the X-37B itself, and this second flight is important to our further understanding of its capabilities."Saturday's launch began the second mission of the X-37B, and the Air Force plans to build upon almost eight months of flight experience with a nearly in 2010.Also called the , the program is managed by the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, a division headquartered in the Pentagon. But the X-37's genesis is from NASA. The space agency still provides engineering support for the space plane's thermal protection system.The spokesperson said early post-flight analysis of the first X-37B vehicle indicates it could have stayed in space beyond the craft's 270-day design life. That knowledge could compel managers to keep OTV 2 in orbit longer."We brought back OTV 1 sooner than that to take advantage of an early launch opportunity for OTV 2," said Maj. Tracy Bunko, and Air Force spokesperson at the Pentagon. "However, the post-flight assessments on OTV 1 suggest that the vehicle could have actually gone beyond the 270-day designed on-orbit window. Subsequently, we may extend the flight duration of this mission to test the outside performance capabilities of the vehicle."The covert space plane blasted off inside the Atlas rocket's pointy 17-foot diameter nose cone at 5:46 p.m. EST (2246 GMT). The 20-story rocket let out a deep rumble as it streaked away from Florida's Space Coast into a clear blue sky, disappearing from view about four minutes into flight. The Atlas 5 rocket soared into a clear evening sky over Cape Canaveral. Credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowThe Atlas first stage's Russian main engine accelerated the rocket to the edge of space in four-and-a-half minutes, before turning off and giving way to a hydrogen-fueled RL10 engine on the rocket's Centaur upper stage.The military stopped releasing real-time updates on the mission when the upper stage engine shut down, but the Air Force and United Launch Alliance, the Atlas rocket's builder and operator, announced the flight was a success."Launch is a very demanding business and having what appears to be a successful launch is always welcome news," McKinney said. "It is important to remember that this is an experimental vehicle; that this is just the second launch; and that we have just started what is a very systematic checkout of the system."Resembling a miniature space shuttle orbiter, the 29-foot-long stubby-winged ship is hauling classified cargo inside a payload bay no bigger than the bed of a pickup truck. After launch, the space plane is programmed to open its clamshell-like cargo bay doors and deploy a solar panel to charge its batteries.The X-37's cost and specific mission are top secret, but military officials proudly boast of the space plane's ability to return experiments from space."It's a huge capability to allow us to do this, to test out materials and other objects in space and bring them back and take a look at them," McKinney said in a December press briefing. "Normally the objects either stay up there, they turn into space debris, or they burn upon reentry. So this allows us to check something out and bring it back."With a powerful main engine, a renewable energy source and electromechanical control surfaces, the 11,000-pound spacecraft can stay in orbit much longer than NASA's space shuttle orbiters. But its cargo capacity is just a fraction of the shuttle's lift ability, limiting the X-37's potential use in launching or retrieving satellites. The X-37B space plane launched inside the Atlas rocket's large 17-foot payload fairing. Credit: U.S. Air ForceBut the X-37B could still test spy satellite technology and do other research. And its engine has enough thrust and fuel to chase down other satellites in orbit, yielding some analysts to predict the space plane could rendezvous with another spacecraft and take pictures of it.Seasoned satellite observers don't believe there was any such in-orbit rendezvous on the X-37's first mission, which spanned nearly eight months from launch through Dec. 3 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif.The craft could also ferry into orbit materials science payloads, experimental reconnaissance sensors, innovative communications instruments, navigation technologies, or a variety of other potential cargo."These are experiments of advanced technologies, so some program specifics are going to remain classified," Bunko said.Boeing's Phantom Works division built and tested two space-rated X-37B space planes at assembly facilities in southern California. The craft launched Friday is almost identical to the pioneer ship that flew last year, Air Force officials said.Engineers made a minor adjustment to the second OTV's landing gear tire pressure after a blowout during the first vehicle's return to Earth in December, according to Lt. Col. Troy Giese, the Air Force's X-37B program manager.Launching three months after the sister craft returned to Earth, the second X-37B space plane will continue flight research from the first mission, according to the Air Force. Artist's concept of the X-37B in orbit with the solar panel deployed. Credit: Boeing Co.Military officials contended last year's mission was focused on proving the X-37 system would work. It was the first time the United States returned an unmanned vehicle to a landing on a runway, matching a feat achieved once by the Soviet Union with the Buran space shuttle."It is important to remember that the X-37B itself is a new technology with state-of-the-art thermal protection systems and tiles, solar power systems, environmental modeling and, of course, its autonomous control and landing, and those are all being tested and evaluated in this program," Bunko said.But this flight will also conduct new tests."Like all flight test programs, OTV 2 will build on the on-orbit demonstration of OTV 1, so we're expanding and fine tuning our test parameters," Bunko told Spaceflight Now.On this flight, officials plan to permit landing of the X-37 in higher winds. The space plane could also have more opportunities to return to the California landing site."The post-flight assessment also showed potential for greater flexibility in the landing profile," Bunko said. "Based on the demonstrated ability of the electromechanical flight control and autonomous algorithms in OTV 1, the OTV 2 landing placards will be opened up to allow for greater landing opportunities during high winds or orbital cross range.""We look forward to testing enhancements to the landing profile," Giese said.Shielded by thermal blankets and ceramic tiles, the X-37 is designed to return to Earth on autopilot, line up with the runway at Vandenberg and glide to a pinpoint touchdown.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Air Force's X-37B spaceplane blasts offAn Atlas 5 rocket launched from Cape Canaveral at 7:52 p.m. EDT (2352 GMT) today to propel into orbit the U.S. military's experimental X-37B spaceplane, the prototype for an unmanned reusable space shuttle.These photos were taken by sound-activated remote cameras placed at the launch pad.Photo credit: Pat Corkery/United Launch AlliancePhoto credit: Pat Corkery/United Launch Alliance | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Another Atlas 5 launch campaign has commenced SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 17, 2013 Going for its fifth flight since December in an unprecedented tempo, United Launch Alliance workers have begun stacking an Atlas 5 rocket for blastoff May 15 carrying a vital satellite to replenish the Global Positioning System. File image of first stage stacking. Credit: NASA-KSCThe GPS 2F-4 spacecraft will ascend into a constellation of satellites circling 11,000 nautical miles above Earth that provides precision navigation and timing to U.S. military forces and civilian users worldwide.The May 15 liftoff is scheduled during a window stretching from 5:39 to 5:58 p.m. EDT (2139-2158 GMT).It marks the first time Atlas and GPS have been paired together for a launch since 1985, when the last craft was carried aloft in the original batch of research and development satellites for the navigation system. Atlas boosters conducted 11 launches of the Block 1 series from February 1978 through October 1985 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.Since then, the Delta family of rockets deployed and serviced the operational network of GPS satellites that grew from a military system into a global phenomenon that touches everyday life for millions.Fast forward 28 years from that Vandenberg pad to Wednesday morning at Cape Canaveral where assembly started on the powerful Atlas 5 to launch the 64th GPS satellite, a modernized Block 2F bird to bolster the orbiting utility.Putting the two-stage rocket together got underway this morning as ULA workers brought the bronze-colored first stage to the Vertical Integration Facility for stacking operations.By mid-day, the booster was secured aboard its mobile launcher, anchored on small supports that protrude from the platform. At liftoff, explosive bolts free the rocket and those supports will retract into the platform walls as the vehicle powers its way off the pad on 860,000 pounds of thrust.Known as the Common Core Booster, the stage was pulled by a semi-truck up the road from the Atlas Spaceflight Operations Center high bay to the 30-story VIF building where workers attached lifting cranes. The 106.6-foot-long stage was rotated vertical, then maneuvered into the building and stood upright on the mobile platform.The stage is equipped with a dual-nozzle RD-180 main engine that will burn kerosene fuel and supercold liquid oxygen during the initial minutes of flight.Upcoming will be installation of the interstage adapter that tappers the 12.5-foot diameter first stage to the 10-foot-wide Centaur upper stage.The cryogenic upper stage will be hoisted atop the interstage Friday to complete the basic buildup of the Atlas 5.Centaur's single RL10 engine, fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, will perform the necessary burns to achieve orbital velocity and then shape the orbit for deployment of GPS 2F-4.The stage is 41.5 feet in length and also houses the navigation unit that serves as the rocket's guidance brain.The rocket is known as the 401 configuration of the multi-varient Atlas 5 family, which is tailored with strap-on solid boosters and different sized nose cones to match the cargo's mass and size.The spacecraft is undergoing processing at its own cleanroom facility for final testing, fueling and encapsulation in the rocket's nose cone. GPS 2F-4 will be brought to the Atlas assembly building and mated to the rocket in early May.The flight-ready rocket will be rolled to the Complex 41 pad aboard the mobile platform on May 14. The launch day countdown begins a little after 10 a.m. EDT (1400 GMT).Civil users around the globe rely on GPS for navigation assistance in transportation to the less obvious role in providing accurate timing stamps on banking transactions. The system developed to support U.S. military forces and their guided munitions.The Air Force is in the midst of further advancing the GPS network by deploying this new Block 2F breed of satellite, produced by Boeing, that features improved accuracy, enhanced internal atomic clocks, better anti-jam resistance, a civil signal for commercial aviation, a longer design life and reprogrammable onboard processors to evolve with future needs.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Atlas 2 rocket retires with remarkable recordSPACEFLIGHT NOW
2014-11-12 17:27:26

留言者: Air Max 2009 
 
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2014-11-12 17:21:17

 
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2014-11-12 17:15:42

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