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日内瓦互联网自由宣言

日内瓦互联网自由宣言

10-04-20 23:55:39

 

我的随笔


 


第二届日内瓦人权、宽容和民主高峰会维权人士和公民社会代表2010年3月9日通过


序言

我们是来自世界所有区域出席第二届日内瓦人权、宽容和民主高峰会的维权者和公民社会代表;

根据《世界人权宣言》和《公民权利与政治权利国际公约》规定,人人有权享有主张和发表意见的自由,此项权利包括持有主张而不受干涉的自由和通过任何媒介和不论国界寻求、接受和传递消息和思想的自由;

鉴于互联网是沟通和思想交流的通用空间,能够不分种族、宗教、地理和经济状况,增进自由和所有人民之间的相互了解;


我们注意到互联网已经成为全球经济和公民社会所有方面的主要通讯工具,为使其正常运行必须保证其透明度与公开性;


我们相信维系一个自由的互联网对充分享有人权、公民自由以及一个自由民主的社会皆必不可少;


我们忧虑到互联网自由在世界各地面临的日益增长的危险和攻击;


我们认识到对互联网自由的威胁以及通过技术手段对互联网进行限制和监控构成压迫环境;


我们确认对网站、在线内容、博客和短信服务进行过滤、监控和审查,压制独立思想,违反《世界人权宣言》第19条;


鉴于所有国家都有责任确保互联网自由;


我们强调享有安全和开放式互联网的国家有责任,防止出口通讯技术被用作压制和审查自由互联网的工具;互联网公司理当采取合理步骤避免成为侵犯人权的同谋和为侵犯人权担责;


鉴于互联网已在世界范围内成为政治异见人士、民主人士、维权人士和独立记者的首选方式,争取言论自由的斗争现已广泛转移到在线领域;


考虑到个别国家的互联网自由正遭受严重威胁且威胁在日益加剧,这些国家被监禁的政治异见人士、独立记者和博客作者迫切需要国际社会提供保护;


回顾2008年欧洲议会提议的关于《欧盟全球在线自由法的欧洲议会法令》,特别是其中指出的专制国家如白俄罗斯、缅甸、中国、古巴、埃及、埃塞俄比亚、伊朗、北朝鲜、沙特阿拉伯、叙利亚、突尼斯、土库曼斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、越南等,通过封锁网址、过滤检索结果和以网络警察及强制登记来胁迫互联网用户等手段对互联网进行审查;


我们深切关注中国当局没收电脑,监禁在线分享信息网民,封锁或删除博客和其他在线服务,记者和社会活动人士因网络活动而被监禁;


我们忧虑伊朗当局通过封锁互联网流量、停止电子邮件服务商业务和短信服务方式压制信息自由流通,并且设立了特别警察机构搜捕被怀疑为所谓“侮辱和散布谎言”的反政府互联网用户;


我们深为不安的是古巴当局通过抑制性的高价互联网用户使用费、极少公共场所的互联网接入点和很慢的连接网速以及只限于由政府控制的互联网供应商提供互联网服务等手段几乎完全限制人们使用互联网;


我们谨此决定,于2010年3月9日在瑞士日内瓦通过此《互联网自由宣言》;


我们敦促现在正召开第13次会议的联合国人权委员会拥护此宣言,以支持面临威胁的互联网自由;


我们敦促所有相关的联合国机构和国际组织拥护此宣言,以支持面临威胁的互联网自由;


我们敦促所有自由、人权和民主的志同道合者通过类似的宣言、决议或其他形式的声明,并将之提交给联合国,以支持面临威胁的互联网自由。


第 1 条
人人都有平等使用互联网的权利,不论种族、信仰、民族或地域背景。


第 2 条
人人都有不受歧视地享有自由流通信息和自由发表意见的权利。


第 3 条
人人都有享有透明和开放的互联网,无需单独申领互联网使用许可,和免受诸如昂贵的互联网用户使用费等抑制性、歧视性要求限制的权利。


第 4 条
人人都有持有和保护知识产权,维护隐私和秘密免受入侵、没收和监控的权利。


第 5 条
人人都有保护自己的互联网接入、互联网基础设施和通讯技术不受政府没收的权利。


第 6 条
人人都享有网络匿名权和在线隐私权,不受政府或第三者入侵性监控。


第 7 条
人人都有在使用互联网时通过加密或其他方式保证自己身份和信息安全,保护自己和自己的信息不受未经授权监控的权利。


第 8 条
任何人不得输出或销售以侵犯人权之目而限制使用或接入互联网的技术、设备或软件。


第 9 条
互联网服务供应商未经用户合法许可,不得向政府、公司或第三者提供任何用户信息。

第 10 条
任何限制或胁迫人民使用自由的、不受审查的和安全的互联网接入的试图,都是对人权的严重侵犯和对增进和平和世界秩序的破坏。

第 11 条
本宣言所确定的权利和自由只受在一个自由民主社会明显具有正当理由的法律所规定的限制。本宣言中的任何内容都不可解读为默许任何个人有权进行旨在损毁《世界人权宣言》所载明的任何权利和自由的活动或行为。


本宣言2010年3月9日由第二届日内瓦人权、宽容和民主高峰会维权人士和公民社会全体代表一致通过



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GENEVA DECLARATION ON INTERNET FREEDOM

Adopted by the Human Rights Defenders and Civil Society Representatives assembled
at the 2nd Geneva Summit for Human Rights, Tolerance and Democracy, March 9, 2010.



Preamble
We, human rights defenders and representatives of civil society from all regions of the world, having assembled here at the Second Geneva Summit for Human Rights, Tolerance and Democracy,

Guided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which guarantee the right to freedom of opinion and expression, including the freedom to hold opinions without interference, and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers,

Recognizing that the Internet is a universal space for communication and the exchange of ideas that can promote freedom and mutual understanding among all people, regardless of race, religion, geography or economic status,

Mindful that the Internet has become a primary vehicle for communication in all sectors of life in a globalized economic and civil society, requiring its transparency and openness to function properly,

Believing that the preservation of a free Internet is essential to the full enjoyment of human rights, civil liberties and a free and democratic society,

Alarmed that the situation of Internet freedom in many regions of the world is increasingly perilous and under assault,

Acknowledging that the intimidation and the use of technologies aimed at the restriction and monitoring of Internet creates an environment of repression,

Affirming that suppression of independent thought by filtering, monitoring and censoring of websites, online content, blogs and messaging services constitutes a violation of Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

Recognizing that all countries have obligations to guarantee Internet freedom,

Emphasizing that countries which enjoy secure and open Internet technologies are obliged to prevent exported communications technologies from being used as a vehicle for suppression and censorship, and that Internet companies should take reasonable steps to avoid complicity with, and liability for, violations of human rights,

Recognizing that the struggle for freedom of expression has today largely shifted online as the Internet has become the means of choice for political dissidents, democracy activists, human rights defenders and independent journalists worldwide,

Considering that there are particular countries in which the situation of Internet freedom is under a grave and gathering threat, with imprisoned political dissidents, journalists and bloggers who are in urgent need of protection by the international community,

Recalling the proposed 2008 Directive of the European Parliament concerning the EU Global Online Freedom Act, in particular its finding that authoritarian states such as Belarus, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Vietnam censor the internet by blocking websites and filtering search results and intimidate internet users through cyber police and obliged registration,

Deeply concerned that authorities in China have seized computers, imprisoned individuals for sharing information online, blocked and deleted blogs and other online services, and incarcerated journalists and social activists for online activity,

Alarmed that authorities in Iran have acted to suppress the free flow of information by blockading Internet traffic and suspending email providers and messaging services, and have created a special police division to hunt down Internet users suspected of so-called “insults and spreading of lies” against the regime,


Deeply disturbed that authorities in Cuba imposed near-total restrictions on access through prohibitive user fees, few public access points and slow connection speeds, and restricted distribution of service to a state-controlled provider,

Decide to hereby adopt this Declaration on Internet Freedom, in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 9, 2010;


Urge the United Nations Human Rights Council, now meeting in its 13th Regular Session, to endorse this Declaration and support the cause of Internet freedom in the face of repression;

Urge all other relevant United Nations and international bodies to endorse this Declaration and support the cause of Internet freedom in the face of repression;

Urge all like-minded supporters of freedom, human rights and democracy to adopt similar declarations, resolutions, or other statements to support the cause of Internet freedom in the face of repression, and urge that these be submitted to the United Nations.

Article 1
Everyone has the right to equal access to the Internet, regardless of race, religion, ethnic or geographical origin.

Article 2
Everyone has the right to the free flow of information and freedom of expression without fear of discrimination.

Article 3
Everyone has the right to a transparent and open Internet without the subjection of individual licensing or prohibitive, discriminatory requirements such as heavy tolls.

Article 4
Everyone has the right to preserve and protect their intellectual property, kept private and confidential from invasion, seizure or monitoring.

Article 5
Everyone has a right to protect Internet access, Internet infrastructure and communication technologies from government seizure.

Article 6
Everyone has a right to anonymity and online privacy, free from intrusive monitoring by the state or third parties.

Article 7
Everyone has the right to encrypt or otherwise secure their identities and the security of their information as it travels across the Internet, to protect themselves and their information from unwarranted monitoring.

Article 8
No one should be allowed to export or sell technologies, equipment or software that enables the restriction of Internet use or access for the purpose of violating human rights.

Article 9
Internet providers should not be allowed to provide governments, corporations or third parties any information about their users without their legal consent.

Article 10
Any attempt to restrict or intimidate people from free, uncensored, and secure access of the Internet constitutes a fundamental abridgement of human rights and undermines the promotion of peace and world order.

Article 11
The rights and freedoms set out in this Declaration are guaranteed subject only to such reasonable limits, prescribed by law, as may be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Adopted by consensus, Geneva, March 9, 2010

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