联合国建议各国政府课征牲畜税


10-02-26

Permalink 09:10:47, 分类: 素食与全球暖化

联合国建议各国政府课征牲畜税

联合国建议各国政府课征牲畜税

 

联合国于218日发表一份报告指出,牲畜应该加以课税,以减少温室气体的排放。

    有鉴于牛、羊、猪等牲畜排放的大量甲烷,是造成气候变迁的最大根源,联合国粮农组织建议各国以课税的方式来加以遏止。

    粮农组织在这份《粮食和农业现况》(The State of Food and Agriculture)的报告中指出:“市场导向的政策,诸如规定那些使用自然资源的人必须纳税或付费,将使畜牧业者承担环境破坏的成本。”“这个产业(指畜牧业)消耗了世界大量的资源,并且是全球温室气体排放的主要根源。”

    这份报告势必会造成相当的影响,特别是影响欧洲各国的决策者。

    粮农组织也提到,若不采取新的措施,像是课税、收费、取消补助等等,日益成长的畜牧业将对生态系统、生物多样性、土地和森林资源、水的质量造成巨大的压力,并加速全球暖化。

  

信息来源:《金融时报》

 

Call for tax on livestock emissions

By Javier Blas in London

Published: February 19 2010 02:00 | Last updated: February 19 2010 02:00

Livestock should be taxed to reduce the contribution made by their flatulence to greenhouse gas emissions, the United Nations said yesterday in a report that will give anti-livestock campaigners fresh ammunition.

The novel suggestion by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation to use taxation comes as campaigners focus on the impact on climate change of emissions of methane from cattle, sheep and pigs.

"Market-based policies, such as taxes and fees for natural resource use, should cause [livestock] producers to internalise the costs of environmental damages," the FAO said in its annual report, The State of Food and Agriculture .

"The sector is consuming a large share of the world's resources and is contributing a significant portion of global greenhouse gases emissions," the report adds.

The proposal, if supported by governments, could hit companies such as JBS of Brazil, the world's largest meat producer, and large US-based businesses such as Tyson Foods, Cargill or Smithfield. Governments do not necessarily follow the FAO's recommendations, but its views carry some weight, particularly among European policymakers.

The FAO said that without fresh measures - from taxes and fees to cuts in subsidies or a boost in the efficiency of the sector - "continued growth in livestock production will otherwise exert enormous pressures on ecosystems, biodiversity, land and forest resources and water quality, and will contribute to global warming".

Carl Atkin, of UK-based consultancy Bidwells Agribusiness , said that investment in "research and development and technological innovation" could reduce the sector's environmental footprint more effectively than taxation.

Although the FAO is far from advocating a vegetarian diet as some campaigners do - it said livestock is critical for human nutrition - its call for reform will bolster groups seeking to tax the livestock sector.

Farming groups and meat industry associations have vigorously opposed the introduction of livestock taxes.

The sector has suffered in the past two years from high feeding costs due to soyabean and corn rising in value combined with a drop in demand.

The FAO's call for reform of the livestock industry comes amid a surge in global meat consumption.

The meat boom is the result of countries such as China adopting a western diet richer in meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. Meat consumption per capita in China has jumped to 59.5 kilograms per year, up more than threefold from 13.7kg in 1980. In Brazil, it has doubled to 80.8 kg.

The world's per capita meat consumption has increased to 41.2 kg per year, up 37 per cent from 30 kg in 1980. Demand has also jumped for milk and eggs.

Jacques Diouf, FAO director-general, said the rapid growth of the livestock sector over the last three decades has "been taking place in an institutional void".

More news and analysis: www.ft.com/foodprices

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