《鲁拜集》的版本

《鲁拜集》的版本

13-01-12 11:00:56, 分类: 人生寂寞好读书, 桂雨秋琴馆

   如果要列数西文藏书家特别津津乐道的书,《鲁拜集》一定可以纳入名册,且排居前位。就说一个例子吧:美国纽约公共图书馆的一间特别藏室里,只藏一部作品,但却有着五百种不同的版本。究竟怎样的一部作品可以获此殊荣?奥玛 珈音(Omar Khayyam)的《鲁拜集》(The Rubaiyat)是也。

   奥玛 珈音,十一至十二世纪的波斯诗人,数学家、天文学家。Rubaiyat 是波斯四行诗的意思,原诗我看不到,当然也看不懂,著名的菲茨杰拉德的译本(藏书家多称“费氏译本”)很强调节奏音韵之美,于是英译的诗体韵脚就颇有点中国七言绝句的意思了。可以毫不夸张地说,《鲁拜集》的版本呈蔚为大观之势,首功当推剑桥毕业的文青爱德华·菲茨杰拉德(Edward Fitzgerald)出色的英译,从首版到第四版的精心斟酌修订,费氏整整为这部诗集花了二十六年的时间。若对比波斯原文和费氏的英文,董桥说过一句文邹邹的话:“海亚姆(珈音)笔端飘下一片落叶,菲茨杰罗(菲茨杰拉德)的稿纸上瞬间是满山的秋色。” 费氏的努力当然没有白费,《鲁拜集》的英译不仅早已跻身英国文学经典,而且是该书版本最多的译本。

   两年前,北京的好友几经筛选,赠了我费氏英译/黄克孙中译的版本,也是直到最近我才将中英文双译细细读了。据说,近百年来的中译也是相当可观的,曾有胡适、郭沫若、朱湘、伍蠡甫、李霁野、王蒙、黄克孙、孟祥森、陈次云、施颍洲、唐德刚等等。其中黄克孙的译本为旧诗译作的代表,读来很像七言绝句。我对照了费氏的英诗,觉得个别几首中译甚至胜过了英译,但还是有相当多的篇幅,英诗更为潇洒流畅、音韵铿锵,让人感觉不到诗体韵脚的限制。也许,费氏的英诗在很大程度上可以看作是借了波斯文启发的诗歌创作,而黄先生古意盎然的诗文虽好(甚至许多汉语用典都很自然到位),但终究是译诗(比如玫瑰、天堂这类词,古汉语里是没有的,还有些词汉诗里也不会用,这就影响到了语言风格)。这本书的另一个好处是插图——罗纳德·鲍尔弗、埃德蒙·杜赖克(Edmund Dulac)、埃德蒙·沙利文、吉尔伯特·詹姆斯这几个著名版本的插画都可在本书中对照欣赏。鲍尔弗的画风像极了比亚兹莱,但我最喜欢的还是杜赖克笔下清丽妩媚的东方美人和浓郁的东方情调。

   有关《鲁拜集》的版本轶闻趣事估计和其版本一样浩瀚,这里我想摘录一个在董桥的《今朝风日好》里看到的故事,以飨各位好奇者:
  “听Cecil Court一位老书商说,英国书籍装帧名匠Francis Sangorski装饰的《鲁拜集》最为炫丽,一九零四年做的一部一九零六年法兰克福书展上卖掉了。一九零八年再做的那部封皮上镶了各种宝石缀程度图案,一派东方贵胄气息,是大书商Henry Sotheran下面的人擅自订制的,讲明做得越奢华越好,做了出来账单吓坏老板,吵了半天才摆平。‘一九一二年,这部书拿去伦敦苏富比拍卖,’老书商说,‘纽约商人Gabriel Weis买了,托运商交给铁达尼号邮轮运去美国。四月十四日,首行的铁达尼在大西洋上触冰山沉没,船上一千五百多名乘客罹难,那部书也不幸海葬了!
  “老书商喜欢聊天,满肚子杂学随时等客人去挖掘,越挖越起劲,他说更可怕的是沉船不到十个星期,装帧那部《鲁拜集》的桑格斯基在Sussex游泳竟也溺毙了:‘书和人一样,’他说,‘各有吉凶运数,注定的!’又过了十几二十年,桑格斯基作坊里一个小师傅一时兴浓,照当年老前辈留下的图样又装帧了一部《鲁拜集》,装好了刚巧二次大战爆发,小师傅把书藏在地窖里,没想到德国飞机轰炸伦敦,一枚炸弹炸塌了地窖,那部精致的书终于也炸毁了!”

2013.1.11

杜赖克为鲁拜集画的插图:
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4bda89f401018ezn.html#comment1

《鲁拜集》(The Rubaiyat)中英译诗选
菲茨杰拉德 英译 / 黄克孙中译


And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before
The Tavern shouted ----“Open then the Door!
You know how little while we have to stay,
And, once dparted, may return no more.”

晨鸡一唱起南柯,
门外羁人击节歌:
“大地苍天原逆旅,
匆匆客岁已无多”。


Each Morn a thousand Rose brings, you say;
Yes, but where leaves the Rose of Yesterday?
And this first Summer month that brings the Rose
Shall take Jamshyd and Kaikobad away.

闻道新红又吐葩,
昨宵玫瑰落谁家。
潇潇风信潇潇雨,
带得花来又葬花。


A book of Verses underneath the Bough,
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread ---- and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness ----
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow!

一箪疏食一壶浆,
一卷诗书树下凉。
卿为阿侬歌瀚海,
茫茫瀚海即天堂。


And we, that now make merry in the Room
They left, and Summer dresses in new Bloom,
Ourselves must we beneath the couch of Earth
Descend, ourselves to make a couch ---- for whow?

醉眠陵上草芊芊,
草下长埋古圣贤。
借问他年陵上客,
阿谁枕我骨头眠。


Earth could not answer; nor the Seas that mourn
In flowing Purple, of their Lord forlorn;
Nor rolling Heaven, with all his Signs reverl’d
And hidden by the sleeve of Night and Morn.

遍访乾坤总惘然,
天垂日月寂无言。
海涛悲涌深蓝色,
不答凡夫问太玄。


But if in vain, down on the stubborn floor
Of Earth, and up to Heav’n’s unopening Door,
You gaze To-day, while You are You ---- how then
To-morrow, when You shall be You no more?

举首叩天天不语,
低头问地地无闻。
即今俯仰犹迷惘,
何况他年墓里人。


I sent my Soul through the Invisible,
Some letter of that After-life to spell:
And by and by my Soul return’d to me,
And answer’d “I Myself am Heav’n and Hell.”

欲寻身后路茫茫,
自遣离魂到大荒。
魂魄归来唯一语:
“我兼地狱与天堂。”


So while the Vessels one by one were speaking
The little Moon look’d in that all were seeking:
And then they jogg’d each other, “Brother! Brother!
Now for the Porter’s shoulder knot a-creaking!”

月照千家户半开,
壶尊无语静尘埃。
鞋声细碎闻窗外,
疑是飘零酒客来。


Ah, with the Grape my fading Life provide,
And wash the Body whence the Life has died,
And lay me, shrouded in the living Leaf,
By some not unfrequented Garden-side.

一旦魂归万事空,
劳君倾酒洗萍踪。
遗身愿里葡萄叶,
葬在名花怒放中。


That ev’n my buried Ashes such a Snare
Of Vintage shall fling up into the Air
As not a True Believer passing by
But shall be overtaken unaware.

死化寒灰带酒香,
河山千古葬遗觞。
他年游子来凭吊,
犹得坟前醉一场。


And much as wine has play’d the Infidel,
And robb’d me of my Robe of Honour ---- well
I often wonder what the Vintners buy
One half so precious as the stuff they sell.

酒误浮名犹爱酒,
转怜卖酒村前叟。
卖来不过几文钱,
何物能如酒一斗。


Ah Love! Could you and I with Him conspire
To grasp this sorry Scheme of Things entire,
Would not we shatter it to bits ---- and then
Re-mould it nearer to the Heart’s Desire!

梦游昨夜到天池,
欲借神明剑一枝。
斩碎三千愁世界,
从头收拾旧须弥。


Yon rising Moon that looks for us again ----
How oft hereafter will she wax and wane;
How oft hereafter rising look for us
Through this same Garden ---- and for one in vain!

明月多情伴客身,
人来人去月无闻,
从今几度黄昏月,
遍照园林少一人。