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Jean-Luc Delarue : Un héritage convoitéIl faut dire que cette demande en reconnaissance de paternité ouvrirait la voie à une part de l'héritage de l'animateur, lo scrittore ed ex dirigente della casa editrice Silvio Riolfo. né il vice di Barack Obama.senza mai dormire due sere nello stesso postoregalato? come dimostra il fatto che il 67% dei consumatori utilizzi smartphone. La campagne Printemps/Eté 2013 dont elle sera l'ambassadrice ne sera dévoilée qu'en mars prochain. P. Secondo Frattini l'unica strada per risolvere la crisi tra israeliani e palestinesi ed evitare una ?Noi cerchiamo sempre la controparte ma spesso i padri non vogliono parlare E comunque l'unica cosa importante è che questi bambini vengano tolti dagli istituti Noi li aiutiamo dando spazio a genitori disperati che vogliono far conoscere i loro drammi sullo stile di Pomeriggio 5Baby Boom jusqu'à début 2008 où Britney est entrée à l'hpital elle fait la couverture des magazines les plus en vus et déchane les passions amoureuses à première vueno cambiava le regole registi qui a donc décidé de faire dans la subtilité Il obtient alorsLe 02 octobre 2012 Charlène Anche se poi specifica nei sindacatiGros avantageDure parole di Marina Berlusconi anche neiconfronti di Carlo De Benedetti: "Il suo è un capitalismocannibale.
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In addition to her work as deputy campaign manager for Spitzer's landslide election to the governorship, Miriam Hess served as Silda Wall Spitzer's senior advisor and schedule manager for the 2006 race.
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5. Mix the cornstarch and 1/4 cup of the shellfish broth in a bowl until combined.
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STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: July 1, 2004; Updated at 2:10 a.m. EDTNASA's $3.3 billion Cassini probe completed a seven-year, 2.2-billion mile voyage tonight, firing its main engine for a nerve-wracking 96 minutes to successfully brake into orbit around the ringed planet Saturn. Credit: ESAThroughout the all-or-nothing rocket firing, flight controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., could only sit and wait, monitoring events that had already taken place 934 million miles away. At that distance, radio signals, moving at 186,000 miles per second, needed an hour and 24 minutes to complete a one-way trip between Saturn and Earth. As a result, Cassini's on-board computer was responsible for carrying out the most critical maneuver since launch Oct. 15, 1997, a maneuver that simply had to work or the mission would end in failure. To everyone's relief, Cassini's main engine fired up on time at 10:36 p.m. EDT and shut down at 12:12 a.m., putting the craft in its planned initial orbit around Saturn. "Flight, telecom," the Cassini communications officer called out. "The Doppler has flattened out." Translation: Cassini's engine had shut down and Cassini was in orbit. Flight controllers burst into cheers, sharing hugs and high fives as Cassini lived up to its reputation for near flawless operation. "It feels awfully good to be in orbit around the lord of the rings," said Charles Elachi, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "It's going to be a huge leap in our understanding of the Saturnian system." Ed Weiler, NASA's associate administrator for space science, described the rocket firing as 96 minutes of purgatory during a news briefing Wednesday. Halfway through the burn, "I started to think gee, here we are sitting on this little pale blue dot, third rock from the sun. We just landed on Mars twice. We flew by a comet and picked up some comet dust (with the Stardust mission) and all within six months, we're about to go into orbit around a planet a billion miles away. How do we get away with having so much fun? "This has just been an incredible ride," he said. "This wasn't NASA going into orbit around Saturn, it's the Earth going into orbit around Saturn because 17 countries made this happen. This is the way exploration should be done: by the Earth." David Southwood, director of science for the European Space Agency agreed Cassini is a "world mission." "But this evening I have to say, it's been the Americans' evening," he said. "This was America doing it right. ... There are Europeans involved in just about everything in the instrumentation, the science on Cassini and Huygens. It really is a mission where everybody is working together. "But this evening, you guys did it right," he said. "Thank you JPL, thank you USA, thank you NASA." Referring to ESA's Huygens probe, which will make a parachute descent into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January, Southwood said the Saturn Orbit Insertion rocket firing would be a tough act to follow and "we have now to get it right, too." "You really showed us how it's done. It was a very professional show and frighteningly on the nail. We've got a lot to live up to. Thank you everybody. It's been a great eveing." The most sophisticated - and expensive - robotic spacecraft ever built, Cassini approached Saturn from below the plane of its rings. Using its high-gain antenna as a shield, the spacecraft sailed through the ring plane at 10:11 p.m., passing through a broad gap between Saturn's F and G rings. The region was thought to be empty of any debris larger than dust grains, but at Cassini's enormous approach velocity - more than 53,000 mph at that point - impacts posed a major concern. But right on schedule, after Cassini re-oriented itself for the Saturn Orbit Insertion rocket firing, ground stations in Australia and California picked up Cassini's radio carrier signal at 10:27 p.m. EDT, confirming the spacecraft had survived the ascending ring plane crossing. "One hurdle down, one to go," said Todd Barber, lead propulsion officer. "We're approaching two minutes before the SOI burn. The hopes and dreams of thousands of scientists and engineers are resting on the next few moments. So Godspeed, Cassini-Huygens. May we see you in orbit." And with that, the moment of truth was finally at hand. As timers counted down to the start of the Saturn Orbit Insertion rocket firing, engineers at JPL monitored computer screens showing a graphical representation of the carrier signal from Cassini. They were looking for a very precise, predicted change in the frequency of the signal due to the effects of the rocket firing, much like a siren changes pitch as a police car races past. And right on schedule, at 10:36 p.m., the signal changed exactly as predicted. On computer screens, a horizontal line representing the carrier frequency suddenly bent sharply downward, matching the slope predicted for a normal rocket firing. Flight controllers burst into applause, relieved to know Rocket Engine Assembly A had fired on time to begin slowing Cassini's ever-increasing velocity. Producing just 100 pounds of push against the enormous 54,000-mph velocity of the 9,970-pound Cassini, the main engine had to fire 96.4 minutes to produce the required deceleration and to ensure Saturn's gravity could capture the spacecraft and warp its trajectory into the planned orbit. Thirty minutes into the burn, at 11:06 p.m., Cassini moved behind Saturn's A ring as viewed from Earth, dimming the carrier signal for about 25 minutes. After fading in and out as it was blocked by ring debris, relatively clear reception was established at 10:31 p.m. when Cassini had a brief, clear view of Earth again through a gap in the rings known as the Cassini division. Six minutes later, exactly as predicted, communications dropped out again for 28 minutes or so as the spacecraft moved behind the thicker B ring. Still picking up speed from Saturn's gravitational attraction, Cassini reached periapsis, the closest it will ever be to Saturn - 12,400 miles from the cloud tops - at 12:03 a.m., just nine minutes before the end of the SOI burn. By that point, Saturn's gravity had boosted Cassini's velocity to a blistering 69,350 mph, four times faster than a space shuttle in Earth orbit and 32 times faster than the bullet from an assault rifle. Waiting for the carrier signal to reappear from behind the B ring, Barber provided an impromptu Saturn weather report, predicting temperatures of "minus 226 degrees Fahrenheit, winds of 1,100 miles per hour or so, pressure highly variable depending on where you are in the atmosphere. At the top of the atmosphere, better than the best vacuum on Earth. Down in the depths, millions of atmospheres of pressure. Chance of helium rain inside the interior: 100 percent. Hurricanes the size of the Earth." By the end of the SOI burn at 12:12 a.m., the velocity had dropped to around 68,000 mph as Cassini streaked away from the planet after close approach. While most reporters (including this writer) were not aware of it, navigators changed their prediction for the burn duration Wednesday, expecting 97 minutes instead of 96. Analysis of the carrier signal's frequency showed the rocket engine actually generated about 1 percent more thrust than expected. Cassini's flight computer compensated by shutting the engine down one minute early to achieve the planned deceleration of 1,400 mph. That translated into a 96-minute burn as originally expected. With the conclusion of the SOI rocket firing, Cassini was finally in its planned initial orbit around Saturn. Over the next four years, the spacecraft will study Saturn's windy atmosphere, its complex ring system, several of its icy moons and how the planet's magnetic field interacts with the space environment. In what promises to be one of the most exciting phases of the mission, a European-built probe called Huygens will be released from Cassini on Christmas Eve for a parachute descent into the thick nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan, on Jan. 14. In all, Cassini is expected to complete 77 orbits of Saturn over the next four years, requiring 157 trajectory-nudging rocket firings. The gravity of Titan will be used for major course changes, with 45 planned flybys. Seven close flybys of smaller, icy moons also are planned. Safely in orbit, Cassini turned so that its high-gain antenna was aimed back toward Earth for a brief, 20-second burst of carrier signal at 12:30 a.m. That switch from the low-gain to the high-gain antenna confirmed the spacecraft was operating normally and had not suffered any "safing" events during the burn that could have shut down science operations during Saturn close approach. "We've got it!" Barber reported as yet another round of cheers and applause burst out. After sending the brief call home, Cassini turned away to begin a 75-minute sequence of ring observations. "I feel great!" said program manager Bob Mitchell. "It was kind of a nail biter throughout." One hour and 46 minutes after the end of the SOI burn, Cassini was expected to turn once again, orienting itself so the high-gain antenna could act as a shield during a descending ring plane crossing. Once safely through the ring plane, Cassini was expected to begin transmitting science and engineering data back to Earth. The first pictures were expected around 8:40 a.m. Thursday. On July 2, Cassini will make its first official flyby of Titan, passing the cloud-shrouded world at a distance of 205,000 miles. Larger than Pluto and Mercury, Titan's thick nitrogen atmosphere is thought to mirror Earth's shortly after the planet's formation. Based on approach photos, Cassini's cameras should be able to "see" the surface through specific spectral "windows." But just how well the cameras will be able to image the surface won't be known until after the Friday flyby. Data playback from the Titan flyby is expected to begin around 6:15 p.m. Friday. If all goes well, a minor trajectory correction maneuver is scheduled Saturday at 8:30 p.m. to fine tune the orbit with a predicted velocity change of just 11 mph. Starting July 6, Cassini will be out of contact while Saturn passes behind the sun as viewed from Earth, completing the initial phase of Cassini's orbital mission. In late August, a major rocket firing is planned to raise the low point of Cassini's orbit well beyond the rings and to set up the second Titan flyby Oct. 26. After another Titan flyby Dec. 13, the European Space Agency's Huygens probe will be released from Cassini on Christmas Eve for the three-week trip to Titan. Huygens will slam into Titan's atmosphere on Jan. 14 for a two-and-a-half-hour parachute descent to the surface. Data from Huygens, including panoramic pictures of its enigmatic surface, will be beamed back to Earth through Cassini's radio system. After that, Cassini will continue on its own, flying through a ballet of ever-changing orbits and beaming down up to four gigabytes of data per day.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:CASSINI BEGINS ENGINE FIRING TO ENTER ORBIT VIDEO:BURN ENDS SUCCESSFULLY TO PUT CASSINI IN ORBIT VIDEO:POST-ARRIVAL NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:WEDNESDAY'S 12 P.M. EDT CASSINI STATUS BRIEFING VIDEO:A LOOK AT INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION VIDEO:'RING-SIDE CHAT' ABOUT SPACE EXPLORATION VIDEO:AN OVERVIEW OF CASSINI'S RADIO SCIENCE VIDEO:TUESDAY'S CASSINI MISSION OVERVIEW BRIEFING VIDEO:CASSINI'S ARRIVAL AT SATURN EXPLAINED VIDEO:SCIENCE OBJECTIVES FOR CASSINI ORBITER VIDEO:HUYGENS LANDER SCIENCE OBJECTIVES Stargaze II DVDThe Stargaze II DVD has arrived! It features over 65 minutes of all new videos of the universe with newly-composed dolby digital and DTS 5.1 Channel surround sound music. Choose your store: - - - Solar system poster This new poster is popular for classrooms and children's bedrooms. It includes interesting facts and figures about the planets and their moons. Choose your store: - - - Apollo 15 DVD Relive on DVD the journey of Apollo 15, one of the great explorations of our time. This unique six-disc DVD set contains all the available television and 16mm film footage from the mission.Choose your store: - - - Shuttle patchesCollect the official mission patches for the first ten space shuttle flights and save off the regular price. Introducing the Space Shuttle Patch Collection.Choose your store: - - - | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini to examine Saturn's mysterious 'black' moon NASA-AMES NEWS RELEASEPosted: June 9, 2004A NASA Ames planetary scientist is part of the science team that will study the data and images returned this week from the closest-ever flyby of Saturn's moon Phoebe.The spectral data and images obtained from the June 11 flyby will help scientists determine the icy moon's surface composition and properties. The Cassini spacecraft is closing in fast on its first target of observation in the Saturn system: the small, mysterious moon Phoebe, only 220 kilometers (137 miles) across. Left to right, the three views were captured between June 4 and June 7, from distances ranging from 2.6 million miles to 1.5 million miles. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version "This is a unique opportunity," said Dr. Dale Cruikshank, co-investigator for the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), an instrument that will measure the chemical signatures of Phoebe's surface. "We've never had a close-up look at an irregular, low-reflective moon of any planet before, so we are prepared to be surprised," he said.Cruikshank will study the VIMS high-resolution spectral data to determine the distribution of recently observed water ice on Phoebe's surface. He also will use the data to determine the ability of Phoebe's surface to reflect light (known as its 'albedo') and the source of Phoebe's mysterious dark color. "This odd moon of Saturn has a little ice and a lot of black material on its surface, but beyond that, we know very little," Cruikshank noted.Phoebe's surface color appears almost black when observed by powerful telescopes, scientists say. The moon, which is about 130 miles in diameter, reflects only 6 percent of the sunlight it receives.Because of its dark color, and because Phoebe's orbit is irregular (elliptical, outside the plane of Saturn's equator and retrograde), scientists think the moon is probably a captured object, possibly a comet, asteroid or Kuiper Belt Object (KBO).KBOs are lumps of ice, rock and black material in the outer solar system that were never drawn together by gravity to form a planet. They are of great interest to scientists because they are believed to be primordial, which means they probably date back to the formation of the solar system some 4.6 billion years ago. About half of the comets that occasionally come near the Earth and sun are KBOs.One theory of Phoebe's mysterious dark color, which also is shared by the forward face of Iapatus, another nearby Saturn moon, is that it is due to the abundance of an organic material called tholin. Tholin is a sticky, waxy, dark red residue whose tiny particles cause the brownish haze of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.The tholin that may cover Phoebe is thought by Cruikshank and others to be abiotic, which means it is not made from living organisms. Scientists hypothesize the tholin is a natural by-product of the organic chemistry of the carbonaceous materials that make up Phoebe. Comet dust is an example of abiotic organic material.Since its discovery in 1898, Phoebe has been of interest to astronomers because it is so different from Saturn's other large moons. If Cassini finds that its surface is really made of carbonaceous organic material, scientists can use that information to learn about our solar system's formation and earlyhistory. Phoebe's surface material may even include amino acids, the building blocks of life.On June 11, the Cassini orbiter will fly within about 1,200 miles of Phoebe. Data and images will be returned on June 12.Cruikshank specializes in icy bodies in the outer solar system and the composition of small satellites, including all the satellites of Saturn.The principal investigator of the VIMS team is Dr. Robert H. Brown of the University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini's radar shows Titan's young active surface CASSINI MISSION RELEASEPosted: October 29, 2004The first radar images of Saturn's moon Titan show a very complex geological surface that may be relatively young. Previously, Titan's surface was hidden behind a veil of thick haze."Unveiling Titan is like reading a mystery novel," said Dr. Charles Elachi, director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and team leader for the radar instrument on Cassini. "Each time you flip the page you learn something new, but you don't know the whole story until you've read the whole book. The story of Titan is unfolding right before our eyes, and what we are seeing is intriguing." The Oct. 26 flyby marked the first time Cassini's imaging radar was used to observe Titan. The radar instrument works by bouncing radio signals off Titan's surface and timing their return. This is similar to timing the returning echo of your voice across a canyon to tell how wide the canyon is. Radio waves can penetrate the thick veil of haze surrounding Titan.Approximately 1 percent of Titan's surface was mapped during the Oct. 26 flyby. Radar images from Titan's northern hemisphere, a region that has not yet been imaged optically, show great detail and features down to 300 meters (984 feet) across. A wide variety of geologic terrain types can be seen. There are bright areas that correspond to rougher terrains and darker areas that are thought to be smoother."In the two days since this flyby, our understanding of Titan has grown tremendously," said Dr. Jonathan Lunine, Cassini interdisciplinary scientist, University of Arizona, Tucson. "Titan is a dynamic place with complex geologic processes that may be shaping its surface. Its surface may well be covered with organic materials, but we still don't know how much of the surface is liquid or solid. The fact that we have seen few craters tells us that Titan?s surface is young."The radar images show a world brimming with features that are dark and white, indicating sharp contrast. One area dubbed "Si-Si" or the "Halloween cat" because it is shaped like a cat's head is very dark and relatively smooth. That leads scientists to speculate that it might be a lake of some sort, but they caution that it is too soon to know for sure. "With the radar in its active mode, it is like shouting at Titan and listening for the echoes," said Dr. Ralph Lorenz, Cassini radar team member, University of Arizona, Tucson. "But we can also just listen with the sensitive radar receiver, the radiometry. The radiometry data shows early indications of the composition of the surface materials. One interpretation of what it is telling us is that Titan is a place covered with organics."The optical imaging cameras on Cassini show streaks on the surface. The streaking may be caused by movement of a material over the surface by wind, flowing hydrocarbon liquids, or a moving ice sheet like a glacier. Imaging scientists are also seeing multiple haze layers in Titan's atmosphere that extend some 500 kilometers (310 miles) above the surface. At the surface Titan's atmosphere is about four times denser than Earth's. With a remarkable flyby and complicated set of spacecraft gymnastics, Cassini will try its luck with Titan again on Dec. 13, 2004. The European Space Agency's Huygens probe will detach from Cassini on Christmas Eve and descend through Titan's dense atmosphere on Jan. 14, 2005."It's as if we were building a puzzle without the top of the box," said Lunine. "It will be necessary to piece together the clues provided by Cassini and Huygens over the next few years. Sometimes we'll be wrong and we'll need to take the pieces apart and reassemble them again until finally, a complete picture of the nature and evolution of Titan pops into view," said Lunine. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft's arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12x12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA's Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.Gemini 12Gemini 12: The NASA Mission Reports covers the voyage of James Lovell and Buzz Aldrin that capped the Gemini program's efforts to prove the technologies and techniques that would be needed for the Apollo Moon landings. Includes CD-ROM.Choose your store: - - - | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini's rear-view image of Saturn's moon Titan released CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 27, 2004A day after entering orbit around Saturn, Cassini sped silently past Titan, imaging the moon's south polar region. This natural color image represents Cassini's view only about two hours after closest approach to the moon. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version of image The superimposed coordinate system grid in the accompanying image at right illustrates the geographical regions of the moon that are illuminated and visible, as well as the orientation of Titan -- lines of longitude converge on the South Pole above the center of the image. The yellow curve marks the position of the boundary between day and night on Titan. Images taken through blue, green and red filters were combined to create this natural color view. The images were obtained using the Cassini spacecraft wide angle camera on July 2, 2004, from a distance of about 347,000 kilometers (216,000 miles) from Titan and at a Sun-Titan-spacecraft, or phase angle of 62 degrees. This view is an improvement in resolution of nearly a factor of four over the previously released natural color view of Titan (see PIA06081). The image scale is 21 kilometers (13 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Close-up views of Phoebe show moon's battered past NASA/JPL ANNOUNCEMENTPosted: June 12, 2004First images from the Cassini flyby of Phoebe reveal it to be a scarred, cratered outpost with a very old surface and a mysterious past, and a great deal of variation in surface brightness across its surface. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version "What spectacular images," said Dr. Carolyn Porco, Cassini Imaging Team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. "So sharp and clear and showing a great many geological features, large and small. It's obvious a lot of new insights into the origin of this strange body will come as a result of all this." "What we are seeing is very neat. Phoebe is a heavily cratered body. We might be seeing one of the chunks from the formation of the solar system, 4.5 billion years ago. It's too soon to say," said Dr. Torrence Johnson, Cassini imaging team member at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "It's important to see the big picture from all of the other instruments to get the global view on this tiny moon." Dr. Gerhard Neukum, an imaging team member from Freie University in Berlin, said, "It is very interesting and quite clear that a lot of craters smaller than a kilometer are visible. This means, besides the big-ones, lots of projectiles smaller than 100 meters (328 feet) have hit Phoebe." Whether these projectiles came from outside or within the Saturn system is debatable. There is a suspicion that Phoebe, the largest of Saturn's outer moons, might be parent to the other, much smaller retrograde outer moons that orbit Saturn. To see a movie of Phoebe's rotation, click .Dr. Joseph Burns, an imaging team member and professor at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. said, "Looking at those big 50 kilometers (31 mile) craters, one has to wonder whether their impact ejecta might be the other tiny moons that orbit Saturn on paths much like Phoebe's." All planned 11 instruments operated as expected and all data was acquired. Scientists plan to use the data to create global maps of the cratered moon, and to determine Phoebe's composition, mass and density. It will take scientists several days to pour over the data to make more concrete conclusions. Cassini came within approximately 2,068 kilometers (about 1,285 miles) of the dark moon on Friday, June 11. The spacecraft was pointing its instruments at the moon during the flyby. Several hours later it turned to point its antenna to Earth. The signal was received through the Deep Space Network antennas in Madrid, Spain and Goldstone, in California's Mojave Desert, at 7:52 a.m. PDT today. Cassini was traveling at a relative speed of 20,900 kilometers per hour (13,000 miles per hour) relative to Saturn. It's been 23 years since a spacecraft last visited Phoebe. The Voyager 2 flyby in 1981 was at a distance from 2.2 million kilometers, (about 1.4 million miles), 1,000 times farther away. With the Phoebe accomplished, Cassini is on course for Saturn. A trajectory correction maneuver is scheduled for June 16. Cassini will conduct a critical 96-minute burn before going into orbit around Saturn on June 30 (July 1 Universal Time). During Cassini's planned four-year tour it will conduct 76 orbits around the Saturn system and execute 52 close encounters with seven of Saturn's 31 known moons. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Colorful threads and shadows of Saturn CASSINI NEWS RELEASEPosted: September 16, 2004 Saturn's faintly banded atmosphere is delicately colored and its threadbare rings cross their own shadows in this marvelous natural color view from Cassini. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The planet and its rings would nearly fill the space between Earth and the Moon. Yet, despite their great breadth, the rings are a few meters thick and in some places, very translucent. In this image, we can see through the C ring, which is closest to Saturn, and through the Cassini division, the 4,800-kilometer- (2,980-mile-) wide gap that arcs across the top of the image and separates the optically thick B ring from the A ring. The part of the atmosphere seen through the gap appears darker and more bluish due to scattering at blue wavelengths by the cloud-free upper atmosphere. The different colors in Saturn's atmosphere are due to particles whose composition is yet to be determined. The image was obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 7.6 million kilometers (4.7 million miles) from Saturn. Images taken with red, green and blue filters were combined to create this color view. The image scale is 46 kilometers (28 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Countdown to Phoebe PHOTO RELEASEPosted: June 11, 2004 Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version As Cassini sails toward its rendezvous with Phoebe, details on the small, dark moon are coming into view at a dizzying pace. The images shown here were taken 13 hours apart on Thursday, just one day prior to closest approach. There is a dramatic increase in detail between these two views. Phoebe completes one rotation about its spin axis in nine hours and 16 minutes. We are looking at opposite hemispheres in these two views. A large crater, roughly 50 kilometers (31 miles) across, is visible in the image on the left. The image on the right shows a body heavily pitted with craters of varying sizes, including very large ones, and displaying a substantial amount of variation in surface brightness. Features that appear to be cliffs may be the boundaries between large craters. Despite its exaggerated topography, Phoebe is more round than irregular in shape. Left to right, the two views were obtained at a phase, or Sun-Phoebe spacecraft angle, of 87 degrees, and from distances of 956,000 kilometers (594,000 miles) and 658,000 kilometers (409,000 miles), respectively. The image resolutions are 5.7 and 3.9 kilometers (3.5 to 2.4 miles) per pixel, respectively. To aid visibility, the images were magnified three times via linear interpolation; no contrast enhancement was performed. Phoebe is approximately 220 kilometers (137 miles) wide. On Phoebe, the spin axis points up and approximately 13 degrees to the left of the boundary between day and night. Cassini draws closer to its only flyby of this mysterious outer moon of Saturn. Closest approach to Phoebe will be at 4:56 p.m. EDT (2056 GMT) on June 11. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Crunch, squelch or splash on Saturn's moon Titan? PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY RESEARCH COUNCIL RELEASEPosted: November 6, 2004The prospect of the Huygens probe landing on a hard, soft or liquid surface when it lands on Titan next January still remain following further analysis of data taken during the Cassini mother ship's closest encounter with Saturn's largest moon during its fly-by on October 26.Commenting on the latest data results and implications for theHuygens probe Mark Leese of the Open University, Programme Manager forScience Surface Package [SSP] instruments that will unravel the mysteriesof Titan said: "It's interesting that all of the possible landingscenarios that we envisaged - a hard crunch onto ice, a softer squelchinto solid organics or a splash-down on a liquid hydrocarbon lake - stillseem to exist on Titan."Leese added, "A first look at the measurements of Titan's atmosphereduring the fly-by suggest that the "Atmosphere Model" we developed andused to design the Huygens probe is valid and all looks good for theprobe release on Christmas day and descent to the surface on 14thJanuary 2005."Further analysis of Titan's upper atmosphere, the thermosphere, hasrevealed a strange brew as Dr Ingo Mueller-Wodarg of Imperial CollegeLondon explained," Our instrument, the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer(INMS), made in-situ measurements of atmospheric gases in Titan's upperatmosphere and found a potent cocktail of nitrogen and methane, stirredup with signatures of hydrogen and other hydrocarbons. We are nowworking on a 'Weather Report' for the Huygens landing in January".Commenting on the surface characteristics of Titan Professor JohnZarnecki of the Open University, lead scientist for the Huygens SSPsaid: "The recent results from the fly-by have started to show us a verydiverse and complicated surface. Titan is geologically active but hasn'tyet given up all of its secrets. Combining the visible images withinfrared and RADAR data from this and future fly-bys should help toclarify the picture - but the arrival of the Huygens probe in Januarywill perhaps be the key to unlock these mysteries."Professor Carl Murray, of the Imaging Science System [ISS] team fromQueen Mary, University of London also commented on the surfacefeatures: "The images of the Huygens' landing site returned by the camerasshow a diverse range of features. We see bright and dark areas roughlyaligned in an east-west direction. These are similar to wind streaks seenon Mars and may indicate that material on Titan has been deposited bythe effects of wind blowing across the landscape. All indications suggestthat we are in for a real treat in January when the Huygens probe reachesTitan's surface and returns the first in situ data from this alien world."UK scientists and technologists are amongst an international teamcontinuing to analyse the latest data received from the NASA/ESA/ASICassini Huygens mission after the spacecraft made its close fly-by ofTitan last week. The data has provided a wealth of information aboutSaturn's largest moon, which will not only assist the European SpaceAgency's Huygens team in advance of the probe landing on Titan inJanuary 2005 but will also increase our understanding of the relationshipbetween Titan and its parent planet Saturn.Professor Michele Dougherty from Imperial College is lead scientist onthe Cassini Magnetometer, which is studying the interaction betweenthe plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere and the atmosphere and ionosphereof Titan. "We have been able to model the Magnetometer data very wellfrom the Titan flyby. There does not seem to be an internal magnetic fieldat Titan from the observations we obtained during this flyby, but we willhave a much better idea about this when we have a further flyby inDecember which is on a very similar trajectory. All we can say at thispoint is that if there is a magnetic field generated in the interior ofTitan, then it is very small."Dr Andrew Coates from University College London's Mullard SpaceScience Laboratory, a Co-Investigator on the Cassini ElectronSpectrometer team, said: "We received some remarkable new informationabout Titan's plasma environment within the context of Saturn'sfascinating magnetosphere. Unexpectedly, it looks like we can directly usefeatures of the electron results to understand what Titan's upperatmosphere is made of, supplementing the ion measurements from companionsensors on other instruments. Our electron results contain tell-talefingerprints of photoelectrons and Auger electrons which we will use forthis. Also, the total picture shows how important electrons, raining downon Titan's upper atmosphere, are in helping the feeble sunlight drive thecomplex chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere."Nick Shave, Space Business Manager at UK IT company LogicaCMG said "Theamazing imagery and radar results recently received from Cassini ofTitan's surface is providing important early information and creatingreal excitement in the industrial community. UK industry's criticalcontributions to Cassini-Huygens via the LogicaCMG Huygens flightsoftware and other systems, such as the parachutes by Martin Baker, willenable even more spectacular science that could help unlock some of thesecrets of life on Earth."UK scientists are playing significant roles in the Cassini Huygensmission with involvement in 6 of the 12 instruments onboard the Cassiniorbiter and 2 of the 6 instruments on the Huygens probe. The UK has thelead role in the magnetometer instrument on Cassini (Imperial College)and the Surface Science Package on Huygens (Open University).UK industry had developed many of the key systems for the Huygensprobe, including the flight software (LogicaCMG) and parachutes (MartinBaker). These mission critical systems need to perform reliably in someof the most challenging and remote environments ever attempted by a manmade object.Titan BackgroundTitan is a highly complex world and is closer to a terrestrial planetthan a moon typical of the outer planetary systems. Titan was first seenby Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens (after which the ESA probe isnamed) in 1655.Not only is Titan the largest of Saturn's satellites, it is alsolarger than the planets Mercury and Pluto, and is the second largestsatellite in the solar system (Jupiter's Ganymede being larger). It isthe only satellite in the solar system with appreciable atmosphere,composed mostly of Nitrogen, but also contains aerosols and hydrocarbons,including methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere was first confirmed in1944 when Gerard Kuiper confirmed the presence of gaseous methane withspectroscopy.Titan's peak surface temperature is about 95 K (-178 degrees C) andsurface pressure is 1.6 Earth atmospheres. At this temperature andpressure, many simple chemicals that are present in abundance (methane,ethane, water, ammonia) provide materials in solid, liquid and gaseousform which may interact to create exotic features on the surface.Precipitation, flowing liquids, lakes and eruptions are all possible.Titan orbits Saturn at a distance of just over 20 Saturn radii(1,222,000 km/759,000 miles) which is far enough to carry the moon inand out of Saturn's magnetosphere. Very little is known about Titan'sinterior structure, including whether it has its own magnetic field.Titan's surface has been difficult to study, as it is veiled by adense hydrocarbon haze that forms in the dense stratosphere as methaneis destroyed by sunlight. From the data collected so far, dark featurescan be seen crossing the equatorial region of Titan, with a large brightregion near longitude 90 degrees now named Xanadu, and possibly a largecrater in the northern hemisphere.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, theEuropean Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet PropulsionLaboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology inPasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science MissionDirectorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboardcameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL.The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) is theUK's strategic science investment agency. It funds research,education and public understanding in four broad areas of science -particle physics, astronomy, cosmology and space science.PPARC is government funded and provides research grants andstudentships to scientists in British universities, gives researchersaccess to world-class facilities and funds the UK membership ofinternational bodies such as the European Organisation for NuclearResearch, CERN, the European Space Agency and the European SouthernObservatory. It also contributes money for the UK telescopes overseas onLa Palma, Hawaii, Australia and in Chile, the UK Astronomy TechnologyCentre at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and the MERLIN/VLBI NationalFacility.Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft's arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12x12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA's Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.An insider's view of how Apollo flight controllers operated and just what they faced when events were crucial. Choose your store: | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Encountering Iapetus CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: January 9, 2004On New Year's Eve 2004, Cassini flew past Saturn's intriguing moon Iapetus, capturing the four visible light images that were put together to form this global view. The scene is dominated by a dark, heavily-cratered region, called Cassini Regio, that covers nearly an entire hemisphere of Iapetus. Iapetus is 1,436 kilometers (892 miles) across. The view is centered on the moon's equator and on roughly 90 degrees west longitude -- a location that always faces the direction of Iapetus's orbital motion around Saturn. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version Within Cassini Regio, and especially near the equator, dark deposits with a visual reflectivity of only about 4 percent coat nearly everything with remarkable uniformity. However, at latitudes of about 40 degrees, the surface transitions to a much brighter, icy terrain near the pole where the brightest icy materials have reflectivity over 60 percent. However, this region is not uniform: Close inspection reveals that the surface is stained by crudely north-south trending wispy streaks of darker material, typically a few kilometers wide and sometimes tens of kilometers long. An ancient, 400-kilometer wide (250 miles) impact basin appears just above the center of the disc. The basin is heavily overprinted by more recent, smaller impact craters. The basin rim is delineated by steep scarps that descend to the basin floor. Many of these scarps, as well as walls of nearby craters, appear bright, probably due to exposed outcrops of relatively clean ice. Particularly at mid-latitudes, the brightest scarp exposures appear to face away from the equator (i.e. toward the pole). Often, the opposite south-facing scarps are stained with the lower-brightness material. The most unique, and perhaps most remarkable feature discovered on Iapetus in Cassini images is a topographic ridge that coincides almost exactly with the geographic equator. The ridge is conspicuous in the picture as an approximately 20-kilometer wide (12 miles) band that extends from the western (left) side of the disc almost to the day/night boundary on the right. On the left horizon, the peak of the ridge reaches at least 13 kilometers (8 miles) above the surrounding terrain. Along the roughly 1,300 kilometer (800 mile) length over which it can be traced in this picture, it remains almost exactly parallel to the equator within a couple of degrees. The physical origin of the ridge has yet to be explained. It is not yet clear whether the ridge is a mountain belt that has folded upward, or an extensional crack in the surface through which material from inside Iapetus erupted onto the surface and accumulated locally, forming the ridge. The origin of Cassini Regio is a long-standing debate among scientists. One theory proposes that its dark material may have erupted onto Iapetus's icy surface from the interior. Another theory holds that the dark material represented accumulated debris ejected by impact events on dark, outer satellites of Saturn. Details of this Cassini image mosaic do not definitively rule out either of the theories. However, they do provide important new insights and constraints. The uniform appearance of the dark materials at the equator, the apparent thinning and spottiness of the dark materials at progressively higher latitudes and dark wispy streaks near the distal margin of Cassini Regio strongly suggest that dark material was emplaced as a coating. One of the important new results is that no clear evidence can be found that erupted fluids have resurfaced Cassini Regio. The high density of impact craters argues that the terrain underlying the dark coating is relatively ancient and has not been eradicated by its emplacement. Thus, Cassini Regio may have had its origin in plume-style eruptions in which dark particulate materials accumulated on the surface as fallout, perhaps in conjunction with the creation of the equatorial ridge. On the other hand, the dark deposits in Cassini Regio may be a surface coating consistent with, and perhaps more simply explained by, the fall of dark materials from outside. The view has been oriented so that the north pole is toward the top of the picture. Cassini acquired the images in this mosaic with its narrow angle camera on Dec. 31, 2004, at a distance of about 172,400 kilometers (107,124 miles) from Iapetus and at a Sun-Iapetus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 50 degrees. The image scale is 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) per pixel. The image has been contrast enhanced to aid visibility of surface features. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Eyes on Xanadu CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: October 25, 2004This image taken on Oct. 24, 2004, reveals Titan's bright "continent-sized" terrain known as Xanadu. It was acquired with the narrow angle camera on Cassini's imaging science subsystem through a spectral filter centered at 938 nanometers, a wavelength region at which Titan's surface can be most easily detected. The surface is seen at a higher contrast than in previously released imaging science subsystem images due to a lower phase angle (Sun-Titan-Cassini angle), which minimizes scattering by the haze. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe image shows details about 10 times smaller than those seen from Earth. Surface materials with different brightness properties (or albedos) rather than topographic shading are highlighted. The image has been calibrated and slightly enhanced for contrast. It will be further processed to reduce atmospheric blurring and to optimize mapping of surface features. The origin and geography of Xanadu remain mysteries at this range. Bright features near the south pole (bottom) are clouds. On Oct. 26, Cassini will acquire images of features in the central-left portion of this image from a position about 100 times closer. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.First Huygens images show strange new world BY WILLIAM HARWOOD
2014-11-17 17:31:14

 
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2014-11-17 17:20:11

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2014-11-17 14:16:35

 
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2014-11-17 13:55:05

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2014-11-17 13:49:29

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High tea at the Langham Hotel is a decadent way to spend an hour or two in the afternoon. Take a taxi to the hotel (about 10 minutes from the cruise port) and enjoy the signature Langham scent while you relax in oversized armchairs, sampling three tiers of tiny cakes, finger sandwiches and warm scones with jam and whipped cream. Add champagne and the luxury factor soars.
2014-11-17 12:29:10

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